Magnetron sputtering principle: An orthogonal magnetic field and an electric field are added between the sputtering target electrode (cathode) and the anode. The sputtering target is filled with the required inert gas (usually AR gas) in a high vacuum chamber, and the permanent magnet forms a 350°c magnetic field on the surface of the target material, which is composed of a positive magnetic field with a high-voltage electric field.
Under the action of the electric field, AR gas ionization into positive ions and electrons, with a certain negative pressure on the target, the effect of the electrons emitted from the target is increased by the magnetic field and the ionization probability of the working gas, and the high density plasma is formed near the cathode, the AR ion accelerates to the target plane under the action of Lorentz force, bombarding the target surface at a high velocity, so that the atoms sputtered on the target follow the principle of momentum conversion, and the higher kinetic energy is separated from the target plane into the substrate and deposited into a film. Magnetron sputtering is generally divided into two kinds: DC sputtering and RF sputtering, in which the principle of DC sputtering equipment is simple, and the rate of sputtering metal is fast.
and the use of RF sputtering is more extensive, in addition to sputtering conductive materials, but also sputtering non-conductive materials, but also the division of reactive sputtering preparation of oxides, nitride and carbide compounds such as materials. When the RF frequency of sputtering target is increased, it becomes microwave plasma sputtering, and the electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) type microwave plasma sputtering is commonly used.